Interaction of different modes of transport
From Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
Russian: Взаимодействие видов транспорта
The interaction of different modes of transport for their participation in the united transportation process is to ensure co-ordination and co-operation of fulfilment of technological operations. Rational interaction of different modes of transport is the basis for the effective functioning of an integrated transport system of the country.
The unity of the transport system allows to determine the main profitable areas of activity of each mode of transport, introduce advanced technology and forms of interaction, as well as to coordinate with the state of the interacting modes to speed up the transportation process and reduce costs (transport costs of the enterprises).
Field of the effective application of each mode is determined based on its technical and economic characteristics, location of transport infrastructure in the country or locality (city), the cost and transportation time. The interaction of different modes of transport is carried out mainly in the transport nodes where traffic flows are processed and serviced by passenger and goods, also its move from one mode to another.
Unproductive demurrage of rolling stocks up to 70% is held in transport nodes of the summary time of delivery. As one of the directions for liquidation of this lack is proposed the development of intermodal technologies.
The interaction of transport modes involves the coordination of processes. The aim of coordination is to align the volumes of transportation by different modes of transport and the used technologies; the preparation of coordinated timetables for different transport modes. For this purpose special plans-graphics are developed, in particular a continuous plan of transport node operation. This plan is developed to coordinate the activities of all types of transport in real time to reduce the influence of fluctuation to transport process.
The difference of transport technologies in the organization of their interaction leads to the following disadvantages:
- excess capacity of transfer points due to the lack of specialization;
- Imbalances in the development of co-operating modes of transport;
- Inconsistency timetables of co-operating modes of transport;
- Lack of interest in the development of intermodal transport;
- Miscalculations in planning and managing of the transportation process;
- Imperfection of the transport-expedite operation;
- A small share of the transshipment.
The level of development of transport infrastructure; the desire to reduce the cost of transportation and to increase the speed of delivery in market conditions, leads to the choices of interaction between different modes of transport to serve the specific cargo- - or passenger flow.
Marketing research of the various modes of transport involves the use of various forms and methods of interaction and competition for best meet the changing needs of customers in transportation services and more efficient use of transportation resources.
In a market economy the main requirements of customers are on an agreed cooperation and coordination of the different modes of transport to deliver cargoes on the principles "from door to door" and "just in time."
Forms and methods of interaction and coordination of various modes of transport realized in the technical, technological, organizational, economic and legal fields:
- Technical area of transport collaboration is consist of next elements:
- harmonization of capacities and processing abilities of cooperated systems and devices on the lines and transport nodes,
- harmonization of rolling stock and containers by size and capacity for effective using of transshipment facilities and points of passengers transfer,
- creation of inter-modal technical means of communication and information transfer.
- The technological area includes several elements:
- organization of an integrated operation system of different modes of transport,
- developing of contact schedules of participating modes of transport, shippers and consignees,
- projecting of interconnected convenient arrival and departure of vehicles of different modes of transport;
- organization of integrated technological processes in huge nodes and intermodal transport on the lines.
- The organizational area (management and information areas) includes:
- development of a single coherent system of control of transport-road complex of the country at the macro and regional levels,
- preparation of regulatory documents on the organization of the multimodal transport process with regard to the safety of transport and environment,
- the organization of transport with a single logistical center,
- prompt notification and regulation of supply of rolling stock to the places of loading, unloading and transshipment of goods in transport nodes,
- organizing the sale of single tickets for the passengers of several modes of transport and integration of transport-forwarding services in intermodal transportation.
- Economic area includes
- the development and approval of plans and forecasts of demand for transport services by various modes of transport owned by different owners,
- identifying demand and future volumes of intermodal freight by region, based on market research,
- developing the strategy of the transport sector of the country, size of necessary investments and how they are subsidized for every mode of transport,
- studying and harmonization of indicators taking into account transportation costs for the correct determination of macro-economic indicators (gross domestic product, input-output model)
- the solution of problems of development and distribution of production forces,
- the development of a common methodological basis for calculations of operating costs, efficiency of capital investments in transport and labor productivity;
- justification and approval of the general provisions of the methodical pricing and tariffs for transportation on one mode and in intermodal transport in terms of government regulation and free pricing, as well as stimulating the production of harmonized methods for intermodal transportation for customers;
- development of unified indicators of transport for companies and regions, as well as values of quality and efficiency of transport services for clients.
- The legal area includes
- legal issues relating to the relationship between organizations of different types of transport and between transport management and clients, including provisions on the mutual responsibility of the parties to implement agreements and contracts for transportation,
- security, transportation of cargo and baggage including the multimodal transportation.
All the processes of interaction between different modes of transport are divided into deterministic, stochastic, and their combinations.
The process where core values vary according to certain patterns, as a result of the transport process is known in advance, is called deterministic.
The process where core values changing randomly, and the conditions under which it occurs, can contain elements of uncertainty are called stochastic.