From Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
Russian: Транспортный узел
Definition of transport node
Transport node is a complex of devices in the area for the functioning and interaction of several types of backbones that serve transit, local, freight and passenger traffic and a set of transport processes. Thus, the concept of transport node includes the process of transportation (the movement of passengers and cargo), technical devices (stations, ports, highways, warehouses, etc.) as well as a means of control and management.
The transport node has an individual plan's structure and has a great influence on the development of the city. The complexity of the transport node is determined by the number and terms of service of its elements (stations, ports, warehouses, intersections, etc.), sizes of operated traffic flow, technological links between the elements and the level of their interaction.
Characteristics of transport nodes
The transport node is characterized by several peculiarities:
- the organization of uninterrupted process of all modes of transport, with a timely and complete satisfaction of the needs of the economy and population
- the complexity of the on-going processes (the interaction of different modes of transport, sorting, loading and unloading of cargoes, passenger service)
- the possibility of dividing the node into a large number of interrelated and interacting subsystems and components whose operation is a subject to a common goal (e.g., the relationship: transport node - a city system, transport node - the environment),
- hierarchical system of individual node subsystems
- quality control values,
- the presence of the control system, providing intensive use of technical equipment, capacity and implementation of traffic with minimal cost,
- resistance to non-uniformity of traffic and other parameters.
In addition to the railway junction, airports, roads bus stations, sea or river port transport node includes facilities of industrial transport, pipeline transport network and a network of urban mass transportation.
The boundaries of the node are the points of merging or splitting flows through approaching lines (railways and roads). Points in the node are passenger stations with the mass transfer of passengers and freight stations, with transfer of cargo from one mode to another.
The transport node system consists of subsystems and components. Subsystem of a transport node is a part of the system, with a set of elements with the subordination to a single goal (for example, rail transport subsystem).
Parameters of transport nodes
The parameters of the transport node are:
- the number of interacting modes in the node;
- the number of the same type lines (the sequence of manufacturing operations), implemented by separate subsystems:
- processing of transit passenger and freight traffic,
- passenger service, transported in a single mode of transport,
- delivery of goods from warehouses of manufacturers directly to warehouses of consumers,
- to repair, sludge and control the technical condition of rolling stock;
- The number of the same type of production lines implemented by various subsystems of transport node:
- passenger service for the transfer from one mode to another,
- transshipment between different transport modes, interacting in a node.
Parameters of the node elements are:
- infrastruvture development.
The parameters of the incoming and outgoing traffic from the node are:
- their volumes
- temporal (day's, month’s, seasonal, etc.) and spatial non-uniformity
- intensity of flows;
- distribution function of the interval between the time of incoming of two transport units,
- the system of priorities for admission and departure of vehicles,
- the regularity of traffic flow, etc.
the transport node should provide:
- the needed processing capacity of transportation facilities and communications for each mode of transport for the node as a whole,
- a rational distribution of the volumes of freight and passenger traffic between the various modes of transport,
- the optimal placement of the main devices of different types of transport and rational organization of the transfer between them of cargo and passengers at the lowest cost and the greatest conveniences for passengers,
- ensuring a reliable and convenient communication with the various modes of transport industries and urban areas;
- cooperation of all types of transport during construction and operation,
- organization of work on the combined "contact" schedule with a single technological process, based on the interaction of available modes of transport in the node.
The development of all kinds of devices in the node interconnected and should be solved comprehensively, taking into account the efficient use of vehicles, the introduction of modern technology and application of advanced methods of transport facilities operation.
For major transportation nodes master plans are developed for the future period of 20 - 30 years.
Transport nodes can be divided into two groups:
- formed transport nodes that can meet the needs of production and people with limited capital investment and limited financial programs;
- nodes that are in the stage of forming.
Transport nodes are at the forefront in organizing multimodal transport and improving the interaction between different modes of transport.
Transport nodes could be at global, federal and regional levels (local traffic).
- ↑ Троицкая Н.А. Единая транспортная система: Учебник для студентов учреждений сред. проф. образования/Н.А. Троицкая, А.Б. Чубуков. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2003. – 240 с.
- ↑ Большая энциклопедия транспорта: в 8 т. Т. 4. Железнодорожный транспорт/ Главный редактор Н.С. Конарев. – М.: Большая Российская Энциклопедия, 2003. – 1039 с.
- ↑ Н.В. Правдин, В.Я. Негрей Взаимодействие различных видов транспорта в узлах:[Учеб. пособие по спец. «Управление процессами перевозок на ж.-д. трансп.», «Экономика и орг. ж.-д. трансп.»]/ Под общ. ред. Н.В. Правдина. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Мн.: Выш. школа, 1983. – 247 с.