From Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
Russian: Транспортная система
The transport system (for a specific mode of transport) includes the infrastructure (transport network), enterprises and facilities, as well as activities aimed to the effective functioning of transport system, and technical devices for the management of the system.
Transport system often regarded as a single part of the economy - a single transport system where each mode of transport has its own sphere of effectiveness and integrated with other modes of transport with economic, technological, technical and regulatory relations.
Integrated transport system is a combination of different modes of transport serving the sphere of circulation of goods and passenger transport.
Integrated transport system of a country consists of railway, road, inland waterway, sea, air, pipeline, industrial, urban and space transport, transport of energy and information.
According to the Federal Law № 16-FZ of February 9, 2007, the transport infrastructure includes transport network or lines of communication (roads, railways, inland waterways, air routes, pipelines, and various linear man-made structures, etc.) and cargo terminal devices for loading, unloading and reloading of cargo, boarding, deboarding and transfer of passengers from one mode to another (bus stations, railway terminals and stations, sea and river ports).
Transport vehicles are the different types of cars, rail rolling stock (trains, locomotives and wagons), sea and river vessels, aircraft and helicopters, bicycles, moving sidewalk, subway).
Management of transport system consist of organization and control of coordinated function of elements and the whole system, effective using of transport infrastructure and rolling stock. Rules of operation and finance of the system is also part of transport management.
Quantitative measures of the transport system are:
- The length of communications,
- The number of employees in transportation,
- Freight turnover,
- Passenger flow.
The transport system has internal and external environment. The main subjects of the "external" environment are the consumers of transport services, and the "internal" environment consist of transport personnel, transport devices and equipment.
The main objective of an integrated transport system of the country is to fully meet the needs of the population, commercial and industrial structures in the transportation and other transport services using the latest advanced technologies and taking into account environmental requirements, safety, security and social justice.
The experience of integration of transport systems in European countries confirms the expediency of combining means of communications of different countries for faster interaction during the transfer of freight and passenger traffic.
In recent years, instead of the integrated transport system the concept of multi-modal corridors and regional transportation and logistics systems is proposed in the market environment. This concept is proposed on the basis of important commercial areas, with the regional transport infrastructure: means of communication, transportation companies, wholesalers,storage facilities, commodity exchanges , banks, telecommunication systems and data centers.
Governmental management of the transport system of the Russian Federation is executed by the Ministry of Transport. In contrast to the previously existing transport ministries, the Ministry of Transport does not own the property of transport companies and do not planning their business activities.
By 2011, the Russian transport system is characterized by the presence of 600,000 organizations and 10 million vehicles. Every day 59.7 million passengers and 28.6 million tons of cargo are carried by the country's transport network. Over 3.3 million people are employed in the transport sphere .
- ↑ Троицкая Н.А. Единая транспортная система: Учебник для студентов учреждений сред. проф. образования/Н.А. Троицкая, А.Б. Чубуков. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2003. – 240 с.
- ↑ Основы взаимодействия железных дорог с другими видами транспорта. Повороженко В.В. и др. –М.: Транспорт, 1972. – 304 с.
- ↑ Единая транспортная система: Учеб. для вузов/ В.Г. Галабурда, В.А. Персианов, А.А. Тимошин и др.; Под ред. В.Г. Галабурды. – М.: Транспорт, 1996. – 295 с.