Transport Companies and Warehouses in the supply chain

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Russian: Транспортные предприятия и склады в цепях поставок


Warehouses in supply chains

Warehouse of various types and applications, together with transport are critical components of logistics systems. The changing nature of the warehouses and freight options, prepared goods for further transportation. It is believed that as stores do not create as production, no additional value, then the experience of Japanese and European companies, their role in the delivery of the goods should be minimized or cut altogether. These management practices are known, however, for the successful implementation of such programs requires shippers to transfer some of the functions, which is not always possible. In particular, the transport companies, in this case we speak of delivery of goods "just in time" and "quick response." These principles are especially important when the rail goes to work with a firm timetable[1]. and it is possible to precisely plan the time of delivery of goods within a few hours. However, the frequency of train departures such formations can not completely abandon the stock, and therefore from the warehouses to the railway sector. The use of other modes of transport also can not completely abandon warehouses, due to the fact that there is the need for safety stock. In each case, required to carry out technical and economic calculations on the capacity, size and functionality of the planned stores in the supply chain, depending on many factors that influence the need for storage in the process of the carrier.

System of warehouses in simple transportation process

Any process of delivery of goods from the producer to the consumer can always be divided into a sequence of elementary operations, with appropriate consideration of Transport elementary chain. Obviously, the carriage of goods from origin to destination, with them to produce a range of preparatory operations to carry out loading into vehicles, organize the transport process and the destination to make the necessary operations and unload vehicles. Loading cargo on the main transport is usually carried out either by the common areas at the station or on the stock company of the consignor. Unloading goods are common in warehouses or non-public. Thus, a continuous transport process, in which the loading and unloading, commercial and information operations are performed in specially equipped facilities - warehouses. This is the start and end points of a given unit of the transport chain. Typically, stores are specially equipped with technical facilities with the necessary technology and equipment for the best possible performance of logistics operations.

A well-organized transport process should always begin and end in a specialized facility - mechanized and automated warehouses (freight terminals) - well equipped and adapted for the most efficient loading and unloading and other works on the transformation parameters of traffic[2].

Aim of warehouses functioning

Warehouse always interacts with at least two modes of transport: the transport of arrival and departure traffic. Analysis of logistics systems shows that the parameters are constantly changing traffic flows, in order to best further transport. For example, consumers are comfortable to get goods in small quantities in small transport packaging. However, the railways profitable enlarge cargo transport of the consignment as it is much cheaper transportation. This transformation parameters cargo carried in stock. Thus, the purpose of the warehouses in the logistics system is not in possession of the goods, and in the transformation of traffic parameters for the most efficient use of rolling stock, as well as for optimal customer convenience.

During delivery the various modes of transport interact with each other. This interaction usually occurs in transportation hubs, which converge in certain types of transport (and in some cases, for example, in St. Petersburg, Rotterdam and other - converge all modes). In crossings have cargo terminals, the main function of which is the transfer of load from one mode to another. In the major production centers the manufacture of various kinds of products to be exported, as in the region where it was produced and distributed to other regions. It is sometimes said that the flow of goods in the region "is born." Urban residents in need of food and industrial commodities. Therefore, there are traffic flows arrive and say that the traffic flows "fade" in these regions. Transform operations to produce cargo freight terminals, so the cargo terminal is an integral part of the supply chain delivery. Moreover, the border crossing, the presence of additional resellers in the transport chain appear intermediate warehouses and terminals, where the transformation parameters traffic.


  2. О.Б. Маликов. Склады и грузовые терминалы. Справочник. Москва. Бизнес-пресса. 2005. стр. 32
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