Modern loading technologies of railway terminals
From Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
Loading and unloading technologies of cargo terminals
According to the terminology on logistics  terminal - a set of devices in the final or intermediate points of the transport network to interconnect different transport systems for freight, passengers, baggage and mail.
By the number of items stored cargo terminals distinguish singlenomenclature with the number of items in the range of ten and multinomenclature warehouses (with the number of items of goods to a few tens or hundreds). As an example of the first type, consider a coal terminals, car terminals, container terminals. An example of the second type are mostly piece goods of different kinds. Number of items affects the storage technologies used in the terminal.
Technology implementation of transport and warehouse operations is the basis for a decision on the characterization of the terminal, the selection of types and parameters handling equipment, assembly process areas. At the same time, there are countless options for layout diagrams of the freight terminal.
According to Zhuravlev and Malikov  has the equipment at the terminals of two types:
- machine cycle steps.
- continuous machines
The first group includes all types of cranes, elevators, car loaders. The second group includes a variety of transport systems.
The level of mechanization of the terminals are divided into non-motorized, mechanized, automated and automatic. As part of this article will be considered the last subspecies of terminals.
In warehouses for goods there can be used loading manipulators and robots.
Loading manipulators and robots
Loading crane - it is hoisting machine with rigid kinematic links to capture and handling, which has 3 or 4 degree of mobility and manual control.
The main features of classification is used:
- type of drive;
- method of installation;
Manipulators produce pneumatic, electromechanical, hydraulic drive with fixed installation or mobile. According to the construction cranes are divided into the hinge, jib and balance.
The arm has degrees of freedom: rotation around the vertical axis of the arm, swing arm, swing arm, rotating Load carrying devices, moving trolley (for mobile manipulators).
Controllers are equipped with means of handling for handling unit loads: Load carrying devices vacuum, lever tick Load carrying devices, cargo hooks, slings, etc.).
The main advantage is the possibility of reloading manipulators automation of cargo handling, the relative ease of maintenance, the hard grip of goods. The main drawbacks of manipulators - low productivity and limited coverage area.
Controllers are used in warehouses for processing different unitized cargo, primarily for the formation and dissolution of packages of goods on pallets, loading and unloading of vehicles.
They allow the application to continue to go to the full automation of the terminal with industrial robots.
Robots for cargo terminals
Robot - is a programmable device used in the loading and unloading processes to perform actions similar to what a person does. Robot arm has from 2 to 6 degrees of mobility and can handle loads up to hundreds of pounds within a few meters.
The advantages of using robots in the freight terminals:
- increase the accuracy of loading and unloading operations, increase security of goods;
- Day and night use of process equipment;
- management of storage facilities;
- elimination of the influence of the human factor during monotonous work requiring high accuracy;
- eliminate harmful factors on the staff at the cargo terminals with increased risk;
- relatively quick payback.
The clearest example of the use of robots in the processing of container is the experience of the world's largest container terminal, such as Rotterdam.  A considerable part of the cargo container handling is performed autonomous robotic cranes and forklifts, computer controlled. In the cargo area of the port "Delta" automatic motorized vehicles operate in the "unmanned" mode, and each of them moves one container. Carts move each in its own program, focusing on magnetic matrix that is built into the floor of the terminal. Once the container was loaded on the automatic motorized vehicles, it is determined by infrared "eye" and is delivered to the destination within the terminal. "Unmanned" automatic cranes take a container with automatic motorized vehicles and move it into the main zone or temporary storage. Thus, this technology is gradually replacing the gantry loaders are operated by people who have previously carried container from the quay to the main storage area.