International transport corridors
From Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
Russian: Международные транспортные коридоры
Business globalization and transport systems integration of individual countries in the global transport system required intense evolution of international transport corridors (ITC), through which the main transit traffic flow. The ITC means the part of the national or international transport system, which provides a major international cargo and passenger transportation between the various geographical regions, includes rolling stock and stationary devices of all types of transport, working in this direction, and a set of technological, organizational and legal conditions of these services. ITC aims to unify national laws, harmonization of transport systems of East and West, the creation of international transport infrastructure with unified technical parameters and ensures the use of a common transport technology as the basis for a global logistics system - the global transportation system. The development lines of trans-European transport corridors and the basic principles of a future pan-European transport policy had been adopted by the 42 representatives of European ministries during the Second Pan-European Transport Conference (Crete, 1994). The target set was formulated as medium-and long-term development of European transport network. During a conference in Crete have been identified nine transport corridors, which should connect Western Europe with the eastern half of the continent. In 1997 (in Helsinki) during the third Pan-European Conference the number of the corridors was increased to 10 and both made recommendations on the expansion of existing ones.
|1||Helsinki - Tallinn - Riga - Kaliningrad - Gdansk - Kaunas - Warsaw||1000|
|2||Berlin - Warsaw - Minsk - Moscow||1830|
|3||Berlin / Dresden - Wroclaw - Katowice / Krakow - Lviv - Kiev||1640|
|4||Dresden / Nuremberg - Prague - Vienna / Bratislava - Győr - Budapest - Arad - Constanta / Craiova - Sofia - Thessaloniki / Plovdiv - Istanbul||3285|
|5||Trieste Ljubljana - Bulapesht - Lviv / Bratislava||1595|
|6||Gdansk - Katowice - Žilina railway - 715; highway -||805/825|
|7||Danube - Germany - Austria - Slovakia - Hungary - Romania - Bulgaria - Moldova about||1600|
|8||Durress - Tirana - Skopje - Sofia - Plovdiv - Burgas - Varna||905|
|9||Helsinki - St. Petersburg - Moscow / Pskov - Kiev - Lyubashevka - Chisinau - Bucharest - Dmitrovgrad - Alexandroupolis + Kiev - Minsk - Vilnius - Kaunas - Klaipeda / Kaliningrad + Lyubashevka - Odessa||about 3400|
The ITC that defined in Crete and Helsinki affect mainly three types of transportation: railway service, motor and water transports. At the same time there were also agreed the transport stopping places and transshipment of goods. Currently, the issues of the ITC creation moved under discussion to the stage of implementation. Many European and Asian countries have sought passage of ITC through their own territories. Russia is also taking active steps in this direction. There is an issue on the organization of effective modern transport corridors between Europe and Asia via Russia.
The formation of ITC in Russia is aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of Russian foreign trade transportation and use the favorable geographical position of Russia to increase exports of transportation services, including transit to third countries. On the territory of Russia has developed a number of transport lines, which are concentrated foreign trade cargo and passenger flows, and international transit traffic. These areas were named the North-South and East-West, on which are the main transportation routes in Russia.
In direction North-South there are several transport corridors:
- Finnish-Russian border – Saint-Petersburg – Moscow – Kiev – Ukranian Black sea ports;
- Saint-Petersburg – Pskov – Nevel – Vitebsk – Kiev – Ukranian Black sea ports;
These two corridors are Russian part of international Pan-European transport corridor No 9
- Moscow – Liski – Rostov-on-Don – Novorossiysk;
- Moscow – Saratov – Volgograd – Astrahan – Russian-Azerbajdzan border (Samur);
- Murmansk – Petrozavodsk – Volhovstroy – Tver – Moscow;
- Arhangelsk – Vologda – Yaroslavl – Moscow;
- Internal river routes, including Volgo-Balt, Belomoro-Balt channels, river Volga to Astrahan with exits through Kaspian sea to Iran, Azerbajdzhan, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan ports and through Volga-Don channel to Black Sea and Mideterian Sea.
In direction West-East there are several transport corridors:
- Russian-Belorussian border - Moscow - Nizhniy Novgorod - Perm - Ekaterinburg with continuation to Transiberian railroad to Far-Eastern ports and to countries of Asian-Pacific Ocean region, the part to Nizhniy Novgorod is included into PanEuropean transport corridor No 2 (railway and road)
- Moscow – Murom – Kazan – Ekaterinburg with continuation to Transiberian railroad;
- Moscow – Ryazan – Samara – Ufa – Chelyabinsk – Omsk with continuation to Transiberian railroad and to transport network of Kazahstan and China;
- Saint-Petersburg – Vologda – Kotelnich – Perm – Ekaterinburg with continuation to Transiberian railroad;
- Provinces of North-East China – Russian ports of South Far East – Japan – Western seashore of USA and Canada;
- Northern Sea Route.