Designing modern rail terminal
From Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
The main objective in the design of the cargo terminal - to quantify it's major parameters. First of all, for each cargo terminal one should determine its functionality and cargo mostly loaded/unloaded at the terminal. On the basis of these data in the future one should decide on the specific hardware of the terminal and its technology.
The design basis for cargo terminals
The main source data set for the design of the cargo terminal (according to Classification of freight terminals), are
- Gender and characteristics of processed goods at the terminal;
- Transport modes of arrival and departure of cargo;
- Annual cargo-arrival t / year;
- Characteristics of vehicles (type of cars, trucks, cargo weight in vehicles);
- The number of days of arrival and departure of cargo a year;
- Characteristic irregularity of arrival and departure of cargo (for example, the coefficients of the daily arrival and departure of non-uniformity);
- Shelf life at the terminal.
Additional options can be specified cargo terminal at which to conduct the design. The number of days of arrival and departure of goods from the warehouse of the year depends on the value of the annual flow of goods, type and purpose of the warehouse. Arrival and departure of goods by rail can vary widely - from 150 ... 200 to 365 days a year. Arrival and departure of goods by road and conveyor belts are dependent on the type and nature of the proceedings related to the projected store and process. Cargo terminal should work in the same mode as interacting with it basic production shops or transport. At 5-day working week, the number of days of the warehouse for receiving and delivery of cargo to trucks from 150 ... 200 to 255 days a year. When receiving and delivery of cargo to conveying the number of days of stock in the year can be set in the range of 300 ... 365.
Irregularity coefficient of arrival and departure of cargo characterize possible deviations relevant traffic in a big way from the daily average values because of the uneven objective of transport, deliver and outbound cargo.
Unevenness of traffic depends on their size, type of transport and the nature of the production, which is associated with the birth and decay of these flows. The greatest rhythm and regularity have freight traffic arriving and outgoing conveyor belts, as they are usually associated with a continuous rhythm of production, or in the circular block trains - "Rainbow" that come on schedule. Smallest rhythm, great unevenness have small traffic flows up to 100 thousand tons per year, incoming and outgoing rail wagons in small groups assembled trains.
Calculation and analysis of cargo warehouse
Design of bulk cargo warehouse begins with calculations of intra and external flows. External cargo traffic - freight traffic is arriving at the warehouse and sending goods from the warehouse to the external (to the warehouse) transport. Vnutriskladskaya traffic flows - is the movement of goods between different process areas within the warehouse: from the discharge area in the storage area of the storage area to the loading area, etc.
Next to all of intra-hour cargo flows determine the intensity, ie needs of hourly productivity of machinery, the moving of cargo to these traffic flow.
Term storage of goods in stock depends on the type and purpose of warehouses. In warehouses railway stations and warehouses finished product shelf life goods companies could be within 5 ... 20 days. In the warehouses of raw materials industry term storage of goods up to 30 ... 40 days. and more.
Basic handling area
The main parameters of the site include unloading rail (for example bulk cargo)
- Length of the train unloading path, m;
- Volume receiving an underground bunker, m3;
- Length, height and width of the front of the underground bunker, m;
- Volume trenches or piles have elevated road that serves the primary blade, m3;
- Length, height and width of the primary blade for cargo unloaded from the wagons, m;
- The number of cars in the presentation (group) of cars supplied to the downloadable course;
- Concurrent discharged cars;
- The number of wagons per day with connecting station to the discharge area of the warehouse;
- Time unloading wagons.
Design and dimensioning of the storage area goods
The main parameters of cargo storage areas, which should be determined in the design include:
- Storage capacity storage area (ie, number of bulk cargo, once located in the warehouse), t;
- Processing capacity cargo areas;
- Volume of bulk cargo in stacks main storage area, cbm;
- Length, m
- Width, m
- Height of the main stack, m
In the design of cargo terminal at the working-process stage estimated costs are calculated.
- ↑ О.Б. Маликов. Склады и грузовые терминалы. Справочник. Бизнес-Пресса. 2005
- ↑ Н.П. Журавлев, О.Б. Маликов. Транспортно - грузовые системы. Маршрут. 2007
- ↑ Коровяковский Е.К., Панова Ю.Н. Прогнозирование потребной пропускной способности тыловых контейнерных терминалов. Интегрированная логистика. 2011. № 5. С. 11-12.